GENITOURINARY CANCERS

Genitourinary Cancers

Genitourinary Cancers includes prostate, kidney, bladder, and testicular cancer, as well as many other rare and common cancers.

The urinary systems is where waste fluid known as urea goes out of body. It also make balance of certain chemicals which are required for our body like Sodium and Potassium

The male reproductive system is Involved in making of and carrying of Male reproductive cells (Sperm ) and its fluid Called Semen .It also involves in maintaining the sex cells and hormones.

Major parts of the urinary system include:

  •  Kidneys
  •  Bladder
  •  Urethra
  •  Ureters

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer begins when cells in the inner lining of the bladder become abnormal, which causes them to grow and divide out of control. The treatment for bladder cancer depends on how quickly the tumour cells are growing and how far the cancer has spread into the layers of the bladder. 2% of all bladder cancers and is more likely to be invasive.

How common is the Bladder Cancer?

Men are three to four times more likely than women to be diagnosed with bladder cancer. Men have about a 1 in 114 chance of being diagnosed with bladder cancer before the age of 75, making it one of the top 10 most common cancers in men. For women, the chance is about 1 in 422 ( NEED YOUR INPUT IN THIS DATA HOW FAR IT IS TRUE)

Risk factors

Risk factors for bladder cancer may include:

  •  Using tobacco, especially smoking cigarettes
  •  Being a male (Men are four times more likely than women to develop the disease.)
  •  Being over 40 years of age
  •  A personal history of chronic urinary tract infections or bladder infections
  •  Exposure to certain chemotherapy drugs or radiation treatmentsers
  •  Exposure to certain chemicals or occupations that deal with certain chemicals Like rubber industry, leather or chemical industry, hairdressers, printers, painters, metal workers, textile workers, truck drivers, and those who work at dry cleaners.
  •  Use of urinary catheters for a prolonged time
  •  Having a kidney transplant
  •  Having a history of kidney or bladder stones

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of bladder cancer vary from person to person, but the most common sign is blood in the urine (hematuria). However, blood in the urine may be caused by a number of conditions, and does not necessarily indicate cancer.

Early signs and symptoms of bladder cancer include:

  •  Having urgent or frequent urination, or trouble urinating
  •  Feeling pain or burning with urination
  •  Experiencing a weak urine stream
  •  Finding blood in the urine

Diagnosis

To diagnose bladder cancer, or to see if the cancer has spread, these tests may be performed:

  •  Physical exam
  •  Blood and urine tests
  •  Cystoscopy
  •  Biopsy
  •  Bone scan
  •  Intravenous pyelogram (IVP): In this process a dye is injected, which then travels through the urinary system and shows up on an X-ray
  •  CT (CAT) scan or PET scan
  •  X-ray
  •  MRI scan

Treatment

Treatment options depend on the stage of the cancer and a patient's general health. Treatment may include:

  •  Advanced surgical and reconstructive procedures, including robotic surgery
  •  Radiation therapy
  •  Immunotherapy
  •  Personalized chemotherapy
  •  Clinical trials
  •  Active surveillance
  •  Prognosis: Prognosis means the expected outcome of a disease. You may wish to discuss your prognosis and treatment options with your doctor, but it is not possible for any doctor to predict the exact course of the disease. Bladder cancer can usually be effectively treated, especially if it is found before it spreads outside the bladder.

    To work out your prognosis, your doctor will consider test results, the type of bladder cancer you have, the rate and depth of tumour growth, how well you respond to treatment, and other factors such as your age, fitness and medical history.

Cancer research is continuously underway. Your doctor may suggest experimental protocols for brand spanking new treatments. Discuss the goals, benefits, and side effects of every potential treatment. Wish a Cure provides compassionate care and comprehensive treatment for people with Bladder cancer.

Kidney Cancer

What is kidney cancer?

Kidney cancer, also known as renal cell cancer (RCC), is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tiny tubes (tubules) or tissues of the kidneys. In the early stages of RCC the primary cancer forms a tumour that is confined to the kidney. Usually only a single kidney is affected, but in rare cases both kidneys can be affected. As the cancer grows, it can spread to areas near the kidney, such as the surrounding fatty tissue, veins, adrenal glands, ureters or the liver. It may also spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones.

How common is Kidney Cancers?

It makes up about 2.5% of all cancers. It is twice as common in men as women, and is the ninth most diagnosed cancer. The risk of kidney cancer increases with age, and occur in over age of 50

Risk factors

Risk factors for kidney cancer may include:

  •  Smoking
  •  Being an older male
  •  Obesity
  •  High blood pressure
  •  Family history of kidney cancer
  •  Advanced kidney disease and long-term kidney dialysis
  •  Misuse of pain medications, including over-the-counter medications
  •  Certain genetic conditions, such as von Hippel-Lindau disease or hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma
  •  A diet high in red meat or dairy

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms may not appear during the early stages of kidney cancer, but rather as the tumor starts to grow. Signs and symptoms of kidney cancer vary from person to person, but the most common sign is blood in the urine (hematuria). However, blood in the urine may be caused by a number of conditions, and does not necessarily mean cancer.

Common kidney cancer signs and symptoms may include:

  •  Blood in the urine (haematuria)
  •  Pain in the lower back or side not caused by injury
  •  The urine may just look dark, rusty or brown
  •  A lump in the abdomen
  •  Constant tiredness
  •  Unexplained weight loss
  •  Fever (not caused by a cold or flu).

Diagnosis

To diagnose kidney cancer or see if the cancer has spread, these tests may be performed:

  •  Physical exam
  •  Blood, liver function, and urine tests
  •  Ultrasound
  •  Biopsy
  •  X-ray
  •  CT (CAT) scan
  •  MRI scan

Treatment

Treatment options for kidney cancer depend on the stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's general health. Common treatment options include:

  •  Kidney-sparing surgery
  •  Laparoscopic and robotic surgery
  •  Cryablation or radiofrequency ablation
  •  Targeted therapies
  •  Immunotherapy
  •  Active surveillance

Prognosis:  Prognosis means the expected outcome of a disease. It is not possible for anyone to predict the exact course of the disease, but your medical team can give you an idea about common issues that affect people with kidney cancer.

The stage of the cancer is the main factor in determining prognosis. In most cases, the earlier that kidney cancer is diagnosed, the better the chance of successful treatment. If the cancer is found after it has spread to other parts of the body, it is very unlikely that all of the cancer can be removed, but treatment can often keep it under control.

People who can have surgery to remove the cancer tend to have better outcomes. However, other factors such as your age, general fitness and medical history also affect prognosis.

Cancer research is continuously underway. Your doctor may suggest experimental protocols for brand spanking new treatments. Discuss the goals, benefits, and side effects of every potential treatment Wish a Cure provides compassionate care and comprehensive treatment for people with Kidney cancer.